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The family of the victim and the guilty party make a line on both sides of the road, greet each other, and accept apologies. Then, the family of the murderer visits the home of the victim to drink a cup of bitter coffee the ritual concludes with a meal hosted by the family of the offender.

Islamic societies apply traditional methods to resolve interpersonal, family, community and inter-religious disputes for hundreds of years. Therefore, submission to the Islamic authority as a mediator is a moral imperative. The arbitrator or mediator will ask sometimes to swear in the name of God and the Quran to establish the truth in the process for conflict resolution and reconciliation.

In general, diplomats are mediators and it important that diplomatic communication take into account these important aspects of the Islamic world. Ignoring these cultural issues could easily lead to failure in building relationships Aziz, A. Admittedly, anti-American sentiment is high in many Arab countries. The foreign perception of the United States is actually more complex than one can imagine. It is not just an issue of public diplomacy but also a matter of cultural differences. It also includes a widespread disagreement with US policy including military intervention in Islamic countries.

This process of communication affects cultural conventions, norms, meanings, assumptions, ideals and perceptions. Diplomatic communication has been playing an important role in addressing the cultural clashes and all its implications. In the field public diplomacy, officers have initiated programs based on local concerns and conditions. For example, in Cairo American artist have been helped to set up studio for local youths in an at risk neighborhood.

In Saudi Arabia, diplomatic communication has helped to organize a joint American-Saudi archaeological excavation. The event added understanding to the complexity of the pre-Islamic history. In Pakistan, diplomatic communicators have worked with the government on a counter- IED Improvised Explosive Device media campaign to raise awareness about bombs that kill civilians.

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However, one of the most important aspects that need attention is to address the current cultural clashes specifically the idea that American culture should not be welcome in Islamic countries. In this particular context, the role of diplomatic communication should protect the states interests by promoting not only its own culture but also learning from the other culture.

The State Department must encourage diplomats to balance between promoting one culture and understanding the other culture. This requires not looking at culture in terms of superiority and inferiority but in terms of cultural difference or diversity.

Rights And Wrongs

The Ummah Islam although very diverse in terms of tribe, religion, and linguistic line, shares one identity. The Arabs in the Middle East, Afghanistan, and Pakistan are all concerned about American policy that affects other Muslims around the world and specially the Middle East. In addition to that, most Muslim countries allow different degrees of personal freedom.

Within each country different Islamic group have specific relationships with their government. For example, Sunnis and Shiites typically have distinct relationships with the ruling authorities depending on their Sunni or Shiite orientation Kemal, p. Many Muslim nations supported the U.

This situation has divided the Islam within and led to a radicalization of one group against others. To address this issue, diplomacy communication must be aware of the diversity of it audiences in term of cultural perspective within the Islamic world itself. Engaging the Arab world may not be possible unless the diplomats invest in effective communication dialogue with all parties of the Muslim world. Diplomat must be serving on the ground, which is the best place to understand the target the right audience. In this process, trust is essential to prevent the breakdown of cultural affinity.

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  6. Trust is one of the key elements to effective communication. What makes the environment in the Muslim world very challenging is the fundamental mistrust of United States objective in most regions. Muslims in general regard justice as an integrating aspect of life based on their religious beliefs. Engaging in the Muslim world without prioritizing genuine empathy and understanding will not make a big change in the relationship. These programs could help create a bond between the citizens and America.

    Reaching the Muslim world should not only be from government to government but also is diplomats top Muslim citizens. Consequently, there is need to maintain trust at the institutional level but also between the citizens of both countries. The United States do not favor any religion over another. There is also an expression of cultural diversity in the American society. Diplomatic communication must support the notion of cultural diversity that allows population to maintain multiple identities such as religions, nationalities, family, and getting education in the same environment and without being necessarily a threat to one another.

    In sum, listening is the one of the most important key elements in diplomatic communication Wolvin, The purpose of diplomacy is to promote the interests of the state within the international system. To get to their messages across the word, diplomats need to recognize that progress toward this goal will be affected not only by what governments do but also the interconnected social network of global citizens.

    Technology in diplomacy is inevitable today. The advances in social media have attracted interest to states that can benefit from it. Diplomacy seems to be the last arena to use.

    U.S. Engagement with the Muslim World: One Year After Cairo | CSID

    The technology keep changing however, what is important is to continually pay attention to the change and adapt to every new generation. In fact, the ultimate goal of diplomacy is to be in service of the ideal of peace and stability worldwide.

    President Obama Speech to Muslim World in Cairo

    Even though the means change but the end should remain the same. The question is how to integrate diplomacy and social media but also how to monitor information? While autocrats and dictators are deterring their people to access social media such as Facebook and twitter at the same time activists used social media to change their governments.

    Even though many scholars disagree with the fact that social media is the driving force for revolution in many nations but it is undeniable that social media are the key factors for change. During the Egyptian uprising in Tahrir Square, masses of people primarily youth, young adults organized though Facebook and other social media started the most powerful Arab political movement of the century.

    In , the revolution in Tunisia started with a large protest by Bouazizi. In addition, two years after the Ben Ali regime could no more control the information environment. The main political claim during the Arab spring was freedom, justice, job equality and the end of dictatorship. Many Muslims perceived these protests as the invisible powerful hand of the United States.

    Reward Yourself

    For many Muslim across the globe, the U. S and the Western World are trying to spread democratic system in all Muslim countries. In addition, there is a need to innovation in technology to face the challenges of global communication and policy. Additional investment will definitely help advance and sustain the US government interest across the world and specifically in the Muslim world. For example, Tamara Coman-wittes, Director of the Saban Center of Middle East policy at the Brookings Institution raise a concern that the US government may need more of an investment to make a transition to this new world of pervasive technology.

    It is the responsibility of the diplomats in the age of rapid information to monitor and understand issues before the widespread.

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    6. This requires familiarity with new technologies and social media. For example monitoring Facebook twitter was one of the most crucial aspects during the Arab spring. The challenge of diplomatic communication is how to analyze the rapid and massive flow of information before its release. Diplomacy is delicate it is time consuming in its process and could take several years to reach specific goals.

      However, social media release information and pressure diplomats to make decisions or react on different issues. When dealing with cultural clashes, it is important that these two approaches be balanced specially when it a sensitive matter.

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      Diplomats would have to learn how social media could be a tool to address cultural cluster through consistent verbal, non-verbal, and written communication. Diplomatic communication can maintain its role of influence and using social media to inform, educate, and engage with foreign public of the Arab world. Cultural clashes are inevitable in every multicultural society. In the international level, globalization has made the world smaller and cultures interacted and interrelated. The United States need to maintain a healthy relationship with the Muslim world for its own national security.

      Diplomatic communication can be a great tool in addressing cultural clashes.